2,993 (including 19 terrorists)
On that morning nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a trained pilot. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners (United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 11) into the World Trade Center in New York City, one plane into each tower (1 WTC and 2 WTC), resulting in the collapse of both buildings soon afterward and extensive damage to nearby buildings. The hijackers crashed a third airliner (American Airlines Flight 77) into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, D.C. Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft (United Airlines Flight 93) attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers; that plane crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania. In addition to the 19 hijackers, 2,974 people died as an immediate result of the attacks, and the death of at least one person from lung disease was ruled by a medical examiner to be a result of exposure to WTC dust. Another 24 people are missing and presumed dead. The victims were predominantly civilians.
.United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767-200, crashed into the 78-84th floors of the South Tower at 9:02:59 a.m. local time (13:02:59 UTC), an event covered live by television broadcasters and amateur filmers from around the world who had their cameras trained on the buildings after the earlier crash.
buildings in the World Trade Center Complex collapsed due to structural failure on the day of the attack. The
south tower (2 WTC) fell at approximately 9:59 a.m., after burning for 56
minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175, and the
north tower (1 WTC) collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately
102 minutes. A third building, 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) collapsed at 5:20
p.m., after being heavily damaged by debris from the
The terrorists reportedly took control of the aircraft by using knives and box-cutter knives to kill flight attendants and at least one pilot or passenger, including the captain of Flight 11, John Ogonowski.
Some form of noxious chemical spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray, was reported to have been used on American 11 and United 175 to keep passengers out of the first-class cabin. Bomb threats were made on three of the aircraft, but not on American 77. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, the bombs were probably fake. The 9/11 Commission established that two of the hijackers had recently purchased Leatherman multi-function hand tools.
On United Airlines Flight 93, black box recordings revealed that crew and passengers attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that similarly hijacked planes had been crashed into buildings that morning. According to the transcript of Flight 93's recorder, one of the hijackers gave the order to roll the plane once it became evident that they would lose control of the plane to the passengers. Soon afterward, the aircraft crashed into a field near Shanksville in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC). Al-Qaeda leader Khalid Shaikh Mohammed mentioned in a 2002 interview with an Al Jazeera journalist that Flight 93's target was the United States Capitol, which was given the code name "the Faculty of Law."
attacks created widespread confusion across the
Fatalities (excluding hijackers)
2,974 died and another 24 remain listed as missing.
were 2,974 fatalities, not including the 19 hijackers: 246 on the four planes (no
one on board any of the hijacked aircraft survived), 2,603 in
people died who were at or above the floors of impact in the
Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank
on the 101st–105th floors of
to the Associated Press, the city identified over 1,600
bodies but was unable to identify the rest (about 1,100 people). They report
that the city has "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments
that cannot be matched to the list of the dead." Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as
workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building for demolition. The
average age of all the dead in
In addition to the 110-floor Twin Towers of the World Trade Center itself, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including 7 World Trade Center, 6 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, the Marriott World Trade Center and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church. The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned due to the uninhabitable, toxic conditions inside the office tower, with deconstruction once scheduled for completion in September 2007. The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was also condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and is slated for deconstruction. Other neighboring buildings including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building suffered major damage, but have since been restored. World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage. Communications equipment, such as broadcast radio, television and two-way radio antenna towers, were damaged beyond repair. In Arlington County, a portion of the Pentagon was severely damaged by fire and one section of the building collapsed.
to the 9/11 Commission, approximately 16,000 people were below the impact zones
Qaeda's origins date back to 1979 when the Soviet
Union invaded Afghanistan. Soon after the invasion, Osama
bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahadeen,
creating Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK), to resist the Soviets. In 1989, as the Soviets withdrew, MAK was transformed
into Al Qaeda,
as a "rapid reaction force" in jihad against
governments across the Muslim world. Under guidance of Dr. Ayman
al-Zawahiri, Osama became more radical. In 1996, Bin Laden issued his first fatwa which called
for "American soldiers to get out of
media covered the 9/11 attacks unfolding, many quickly speculated that Bin
Laden was behind the attacks. Within hours of the attacks, the FBI was able to
determine the names and in many cases details such as dates of birth, known
and/or possible residences, visa status, and specific identity of the suspected
pilots and hijackers. Few had made any attempt to disguise their names on
flight and credit card records, and they were some of the few
people of Arabic descent on the flights. Mohamed
Atta's luggage, which did not make the connection from his
Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States was formed by the
Nineteen men boarded the four planes, five each on American Airlines Flight 11, United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 77, four on United Airlines Flight 93. Fifteen of the attackers were from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egypt, and one from Lebanon.
The group consisted of six core organizers, which included the four pilots, and thirteen others. Unlike many stereotypes of hijackers or terrorists, most of the attackers were educated and came from well-to-do backgrounds.
members of al-Qaeda attempted to enter the
Zacarias Moussaoui was reportedly considered as a replacement for Ziad Jarrah, who at one point threatened to withdraw from the scheme because of tensions amongst the plotters. Plans to include Moussaoui were never completed because the al-Qaeda hierarchy allegedly had doubts about his reliability. He was arrested on August 16, 2001, about four weeks before the attacks, ostensibly for an immigration violation, but FBI agents suspected he had violent intentions after receiving flight training earlier that year. In April 2005, Moussaoui pleaded guilty to conspiring to hijack planes, and to involvement with al-Qaeda, but he denies foreknowledge of the 9/11 attacks. Moussaoui, at his sentencing hearing in March 2006, claimed that, upon the personal directive of Osama bin Laden, he and Richard Reid were due to hijack a fifth plane and fly it into the White House.
His defense lawyers dismissed this as fantasy on the part of Moussaoui, saying that he was not an operative in al Qaeda, but only a "hanger-on." In a video tape released in May 2006, Osama bin Laden claimed that Moussaoui had "no connection whatsoever with the events of September 11" and that he knows this because "he was responsible for entrusting the 19 brothers" who carried out the attacks. On May 3, 2006, a federal jury rejected the death penalty and sentenced Moussaoui to 6 life terms in prison without parole.
Buildings surrounding the
Moussaoui's sentencing trial, FBI agent Greg Jones
testified that prior to the attacks, he urged his supervisor, Michael Maltbie,
"to prevent Zacarias Moussaoui from flying a plane into the
Binalshibh allegedly meant to take part in the attacks, but he was
repeatedly denied a visa for entry into the
Other al-Qaeda members who may have attempted, but were unable, to take part in the attacks include Saeed al-Ghamdi (not to be confused with the successful hijacker of the same name), Mushabib al-Hamlan, Zakariyah Essabar, Ali Abdul Aziz Ali, and Tawfiq bin Attash. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, the attack's mastermind, wanted to remove at least one member—Khalid al-Mihdhar—from the operation, but he was overruled by Osama bin Laden.
On September 27, 2001, the FBI released photos of the 19 hijackers, along with information about the possible nationalities and aliases of many. The FBI investigation into the September 11, 2001 attacks, code named operation PENTTBOM, was the largest and most complex investigation in the history of the FBI, involving over 7,000 special agents. The United States government determined that al-Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden, bore responsibility for the attacks, with the FBI stating that evidence linking Al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable. The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion, regarding Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a Fatwa signed by bin Laden and others calling for the killing of American civilians in 1998, are seen by many as evidence of his motivation to commit such acts.
Laden initially denied, but later admitted involvement in the incidents. On September 16, 2001, bin Laden denied
any involvement with the attacks by reading a statement which was broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera
satellite channel: "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which
appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own
motivation." This denial was broadcast on
On December 27,
2001, a second bin
Laden video was released. In the video, he stated "Terrorism against
Shortly before the U.S. presidential election in 2004, in a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged al-Qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the U.S, and admitted his direct link to the attacks. He said that the attacks were carried out because, "We are a free people who do not accept injustice, and we want to regain the freedom of our nation."
In a videotape aired on Al Jazeera, on October 30, 2004, bin Laden said he had personally directed the 19 hijackers. Another video obtained by Al Jazeera in September 2006 shows Osama bin Laden with Ramzi Binalshibh, as well as two hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks.
idea for the September 11 plot came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who first presented
the idea to Bin Laden in 1996. At that point, Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda were in a period
of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan
from Sudan. The 1998 African Embassy bombings
marked a turning point, with Bin Laden intent on attacking the
In a 2002 interview with Al Jazeera journalist Yosri Fouda, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed admitted his involvement, along with Ramzi Binalshibh, in the "Holy Tuesday operation". Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Mohammed ultimately ended up at Guantanamo Bay. During US hearings in March 2007, which have been "widely criticised by lawyers and human rights groups as sham tribunals", Mohammed again confessed his responsibility for the attacks, "I was responsible for the 9/11 operation, from A to Z."
In "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheik Mohammed" from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, five people are identified as having been completely aware of the operations details. They are: Osama bin Laden, Khalid Sheik Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh, Abu Turab Al-Urduni and Mohammed Atef.
On September 26, 2005, the Spanish high court directed by judge Baltazar Garzon sentenced Abu Dahdah to 27 years of imprisonment for conspiracy on the 9/11 attacks and as part of the terrorist organization Al Qaeda. At the same time, another 17 Al Qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between 6 and 12 years. On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court reduced the Abu Dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven.
11 attacks were consistent with the overall mission statement of al-Qaeda, as
set out in a 1998 fatwa
issued by Osama bin Laden, Ayman
al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh
Mir Hamzah, and Fazlur Rahman. In the fatwa, Bin Laden directed his followers "to
kill Americans anywhere". He also outlined his objections to American foreign policy towards Israel, as well as
U.S. aggression against the Iraqi people, the ensuing sanctions
against Iraq, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi
Arabia after the Persian Gulf War. The fatwa also specifically
of al-Qaeda recorded after 9/11 add weight to the U.S
account of who was responsible for the attacks. In a 2004 video, apparently acknowledging
responsibility for the attacks, bin Laden states that
he was motivated by the 1982 Lebanon War, for which he held the
The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the
animosity towards the United States felt by Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, the "principal
architect" of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed "not from his experiences
there as a student, but rather from his violent disagreement with U.S. foreign
policy favoring Israel." The same motivation was
shared by the two pilots who flew into the WTC: Mohamed Atta was described by Ralph
Bodenstein—who traveled, worked and talked with him—as "most
imbued actually about...
The motives of al-Qaeda have also been extensively analyzed by other parties, including politicians, academics, and media commentators. In a 2001 speech, U.S. President Bush explained the general motivations of the perpetrators as "They hate ... a democratically elected government. ... They hate our freedoms -- our freedom of religion, our freedom of speech, our freedom to vote and assemble and disagree with each other." However, this view has been criticized by experts such as Former CIA Bin Laden Unit Chief Michael Scheuer, who explain that "politicians really are at great fault for not squaring with the American people. We're being attacked for what we do in the Islamic world, not for who we are or what we believe in or how we live."
Many of the eventual findings of the 9/11 Commission with respect to motives have been supported by other experts. For instance, Counter-terrorism expert Richard A. Clarke, explains that foreign policy decisions including "confronting Moscow in Afghanistan, inserting the U.S. military in the Persian Gulf," and "strengthening Israel as a base for a southern flank against the Soviets" contributed to al-Qaeda's motives. Others, such as Jason Burke, focus on a more political aspect to the motive, stating that "Bin Laden is an activist with a very clear sense of what he wants and how he hopes to achieve it. Those means may be far outside the norms of political activity [[..]] but his agenda is a basically political one."
variety of scholarship has also focused on bin Laden's overall strategy as a
motive for the attacks. For instance, Peter
Bergen argues that the attacks were part of a plan to cause the
attacks had major global
political ramifications. They were denounced by mainstream
media and governments worldwide, with the headline of France's Le Monde newspaper
summing up the international mood of sympathy: "We Are All Americans"
(Nous sommes tous Américains). The most publicized exception
was that some Palestinians celebrated
jubilantly upon hearing about 9/11. There was a report by a
journalist about public demonstrations of enthusiasm for the attacks conducted
by Chinese students in Beijing, China during the night after the
attacks. Although the journalist was not in
one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international
forces in the removal of the Taliban regime for harboring the al-Qaeda
organization. The Pakistani authorities moved decisively to align themselves
Numerous countries, including the UK, India, Australia, France, Germany, Indonesia, China, Canada, Russia, Pakistan, Jordan, Mauritius, Uganda and Zimbabwe introduced "anti-terrorism" legislation and froze the bank accounts of businesses and individuals they suspected of having al-Qaeda ties.
Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries, including Italy, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines arrested people they labeled terrorist suspects for the stated purpose of breaking up militant cells around the world. In the U.S., this aroused some controversy, as critics such as the Bill of Rights Defense Committee argued that traditional restrictions on federal surveillance (e.g. COINTELPRO's monitoring of public meetings) were "dismantled" by the USA PATRIOT Act; civil liberty organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union and Liberty argued that certain civil rights protections were also being circumvented.
In the United Kingdom, outrage swelled in the media when Jo Moore, a special adviser to Transport Secretary Stephen Byers, sent an email to staff an hour after the attacks, but before the towers had collapsed, suggesting that "It is now a very good day to get out anything we want to bury. Councillors' expenses?" Moore faced calls for her resignation, but after apologising and receiving backing from Byers and Downing Street, she remained in her job until February 2002, when a further 'burying bad news' scandal finally led to her resignation.
9/11 attacks had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the
Numerous incidents of harassment and hate crimes were reported against Middle Easterners and other "Middle Eastern-looking" people, particularly Sikhs, due to the fact that Sikh males usually wear turbans, which are stereotypically associated with Muslims in the United States. There were reports of verbal abuse, attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the firebombing of a Hindu temple) and assaults on people, including one murder; Balbir Singh Sodhi was fatally shot on September 15. He, like others, was a Sikh who was mistaken for a Muslim.
the attacks, George W. Bush's job approval
rating soared to 86%. On September 20, 2001, the U.S.
president spoke before the nation and a joint session of the United
States Congress, regarding the events of that day, the intervening nine
days of rescue and recovery efforts, and his intent in response to those
events. In addition, the highly visible role played by New York City mayor Rudy
Giuliani won him high praise nationally and in
Muslim organizations in the
Various conspiracy theories have emerged as a reaction to the attacks suggesting that individuals outside of the terrorist organization Al Qaeda knew of, planned, or carried out the attacks. These theories are not accepted as credible by most mainstream journalists, scientists, and political leaders, who have concluded that responsibility for the attacks and the resulting destruction rests with Al Qaeda.
The FDNY deployed 200 units (half of the department) to the site, whose efforts were supplemented by numerous off-duty firefighters. NYPD Emergency Service Units (ESU) and other police personnel, along with numerous EMTs rushed to the scene. NYPD helicopters were soon at the scene, reporting on the status of the burning buildings. Though, FDNY commanders lacked communication with the NYPD, as well as with 9-1-1 dispatchers to provide good situational awareness. FDNY commanders also had difficulties communicating evacuation orders to firefighters inside the towers due to malfunctioning repeater systems in the World Trade Center.
Within hours of the attack, a massive search and rescue (SAR) operation was launched. Initially, only a handful of wounded people were found at the site, and in the weeks that followed it became evident that there were no survivors to be found. Rescue and recovery efforts took months to complete. It took several weeks to simply put out the fires burning in the rubble of the buildings, although there was smoldering and smoke for 99 days, before the fire was completely out. The clean-up was not completed until May 2002. Temporary wooden "viewing platforms" were set up for tourists to view construction crews clearing out the gaping holes where the towers once stood. All of these platforms were closed on May 30, 2002.
Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors and the families of victims. By the deadline for victim's compensation, September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications had been received from the families of those killed.
the first time in history, all nonemergency civilian aircraft in the
plans for the continuity of government and the
evacuation of leaders were also implemented almost immediately after the
attacks. Congress, however, was not told that the
In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the
Bush administration declared a war
on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to
justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals
would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions
against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global
surveillance and intelligence sharing. Immediately after the September 11
attacks U.S. officials speculated on possible involvement by Saddam Hussein;
although unfounded, the association contributed to public acceptance for the 2003 invasion of
Iraq. The second-biggest operation of the U.S. Global War on Terrorism
outside of the
Following the attacks, 80,000 Arab and Muslim immigrants were fingerprinted and registered under the Alien Registration Act of 1940. 8,000 Arab and Muslim men were interviewed, and 5,000 foreign nationals were detained under Joint Congressional Resolution 107-40 authorizing the use of military force "to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States."
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission), chaired by former New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean, was formed in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the attacks, including preparedness for, and the immediate response to, the attacks. On July 22, 2004, the 9/11 Commission issued the 9/11 Commission Report. The Commission has been subject to criticism.
An illustration of the
A federal technical building and fire safety investigation of the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC has been conducted by the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The goals of this investigation, completed on April 6, 2005, were to investigate the building construction, the materials used, and the technical conditions that contributed to the outcome of the WTC disaster. The investigation was to serve as the basis for:
report concludes that the fireproofing on the
The Inspector General of the CIA conducted an internal review of the CIA's pre-9/11 performance, and was harshly critical of senior CIA officials for not doing everything possible to confront terrorism, including failing to stop two of the 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, as they entered the United States and failing to share information on the two men with the FBI.
Senators from both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in May, 2007 drafted legislation that would openly present an internal CIA investigative report. One of the backers, Senator Ron Wyden stated "The American people have a right to know what the Central Intelligence Agency was doing in those critical months before 9/11.... I am going to bulldog this until the public gets it." The report investigates the responsibilities of individual CIA personnel before and after the 9/11 attacks. The report was completed in 2005, but its details have never been released to the public.
attacks had a significant economic impact on the
economy of Lower Manhattan, which by itself is the
third-largest business district in the United States
(after Midtown Manhattan and the Chicago
Loop) was devastated in the immediate aftermath. Thirty percent (31.2
ft, 2.7 million m³) of Lower
Manhattan office space was either damaged or destroyed. The 41-story Deutsche Bank Building, neighboring the
rebuilding has been inhibited by a lack of agreement on priorities. For
example, Mayor Bloomberg had made New York's bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics the core of his capital development
plan from 2002 until mid-2005, and Governor Pataki largely delegated his role
to the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation
which has been widely criticized for doing little with the enormous funding
directed to the rebuilding efforts. On the sites of the totally destroyed buildings, one, 7 World Trade Center, has a new office tower
which was completed in 2006. The Freedom
Tower is currently under construction at the site and at 1,776 ft
(541 m) upon completion in 2010, will become the tallest building
space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel
decreased significantly upon its reopening. The attacks led to nearly a 20%
cutback in air travel capacity, and severely exacerbated financial problems in
The thousands of tons of toxic debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers consisted of more than 2,500 contaminants, more specifically: 50% nonfibrous material and construction debris; 40% glass and other fibers; 9.2% cellulose; and 0.8% asbestos, lead, and mercury. There were also unprecedented levels of dioxin and PAHs from the fires which burned for three months. Some of the dispersed substances (crystalline silica, lead, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are carcinogenic; other substances can trigger kidney, heart, liver and nervous system deterioration.
This has led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, which many claim to be directly linked to debris exposure. For example, NYPD Officer Frank Macri died of lung cancer that spread throughout his body on September 3, 2007; his family contends the cancer is the result of long hours on the site and they have filed for line-of-duty death benefits, which the City has yet to rule on.  Health effects have also extended to some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown.
On May 24, 2007, for the first
time a death was linked to the toxic dust caused by the
Legal disputes over the attendant costs of illnesses related to the attacks are still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, federal judge Alvin K. Hellerstein rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city.
is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products and the
pollutants in the air surrounding the Towers after the WTC collapse may have
negative effects on fetal development. Due to this potential hazard,
a notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the
children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living
or working near the
officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower
Main article: September 11, 2001 attack memorials and services
In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held, including candlelight vigils in New York on September 12 and September 14, and a candlelight procession in Washington on September 14. In Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, over 100,000 people attended a memorial service on Parliament Hill, while all across Europe a three-minute silence was held at noon, Paris time. The UK paid special homage on September 13, 2001, pausing the changing of the guard for two minutes in silence, then playing the American national anthem.
memorials were quickly erected at the three sites, with permanent memorials in
the planning stages, or under construction. One of the first was the Tribute
in Light, an installation of 88 searchlights at the footprints of the
At the Pentagon, an outdoor memorial is currently under construction, which will consist of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon. When the Pentagon was rebuilt in 2001-2002, a private chapel and indoor memorial were included, located at the spot where Flight 77 crashed into the building. A temporary memorial is located 500 yards (500 m) from the Flight 93 crash site near Shanksville. A permanent Flight 93 National Memorial is in planning stages, which will include a sculpted grove of trees forming a circle around the crash site, bisected by the plane's path, while wind chimes will bear the names of the victims. Many other permanent memorials are being constructed around the world and a list is being updated as new ones are completed.
In addition to physical monuments, scholarships and charities have been established by the victims' loved ones, along with many other organizations and private figures. Numerous public benefits and concerts have been held to raise money for the families of victims. In addition, the Raoul Wallenberg Award was given to New York City in 2001 "For all of its citizens who searched for the missing, cared for the injured, gave comfort to loved ones of the missing or lost, and provided sustenance and encouragement to those who searched through the rubble at ground zero."
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